The Umbrella Corporation, a staple in the Resident Evil series and probably THE most evil corporation in all of fiction, why? well… let’s find out.
FOUNDING OF UMBRELLA
The Umbrella Corporation was originally founded as Umbrella Pharmaceuticals in late 1967 in the UK by Dr. Oswell E. Spencer, Dr. James Marcus & Dr. Edward Ashford.
Marcus and Spencer had become obsessed with a 19th century encyclopedia titled Natural History Conspectus. It was written by Henry Travis and detailed his journeys and contact with the Ndipaya tribe of West Africa and their folklore detailing a flower which can imbue great powers when consumed. Spencer and Marcus conducted several expeditions into the region and eventually discovered the flower. The Drs. along with Marcus’ student Brandon Bailey, discovered the flowers contained a mutagenic virus they would later dub “Progenitor”. Brimming with potential, Spencer made it his life goal to ensure the genesis of a new race of humans using this newly discovered progenitor virus. He founded Umbrella Pharmaceuticals alongside his long time friend Marcus and their mutual friend Ashford. On the face of things, Umbrella was a simple medicine manufacturing company, some of their most notable contributions were Adravil, Aqua Cure, Safsprin, and a common first aid spray to heal wounds. Under the surface the main goal of Umbrella was to further Spencer’s research into the advancement of humanity using Progenitor and to manufacture bio weapons to be sold for research money. One such project, became known as the “T-Virus”.
In the early 1970’s, Umbrella acquired Arklay laboratories and their samples of the Ebola virus. Officially, Arklay was using the virus samples to attempt to manufacture a cure; unofficially, they were mutating the virus to strengthen it’s applications and potential use as a bio-weapon. Throughout the early 70’s, Umbrella acquired several other subsidiary laboratories and their research for use in it’s bio-weapon research and manufacturing. They would contract each subsidiary to manufacture a specific medicine but use their collective research, which was deemed property of Umbrella, to further their bio-weapon research.
For each vaccine that the Umbrella Corporation produced, they also produced a strain of the virus that was resistent to it. Thus, ensuring them a global market. A large portion of their viral research was on specific viruses and bacteria outlawed by the 1972 Biological Weapons Convention. As Umbrella began to acquire more and more research firms, they also branched into other industries, always with an ulterior motive. Umbrella made a huge push into tourism and transportation who’s main purpose was the transportation of biological and viral weapons out of Africa. They also founded an Umbrella subsidiary company for defence manufacturing called Umbrella Industries that focused on weapons manufacturing and Anti-B.O.W (Bio Organic Weapon) weaponry.
In 1978, the T-Virus project began to move away from its original designation as a weapon of death when it was discovered that hosts infected and killed with the virus underwent severe mutations. The T-virus caused severe mutations in the host which rendered them alive in a mentally damaged, cannibalistic and homicidal state capable of strenuous activity even after death.
DISSENTION AMONGST THE FOUNDERS
As the success of Umbrella began to take shape, the founding members of the company became at odds with one another. Ashford was actually killed in a T-virus experiment that went awry in 1968. It is highly believed that Dr. Spencer had something to do with the accident, though no connection was ever proven.
Dr. Marcus grew very unpopular with the executive board of the company for his tendency to use executive trainees as guinea pigs in his biological experiments without consent. It got so bad that Umbrella Security Service (the company’s private police force) apprehended and executed him in 1988.
Dr. Alexander Ashford, the son of the Late Dr. Edward Ashford, did not take up his father’s work in virology and thus was not a threat to Spencer and his control of the company. Alexander’s daughter, Alexia, however, did follow in her grandfather’s footsteps and helped to restore the Ashford name to prominence. Spencer grew worried of the Ashford’s once more and both Alex and Alexia were infected with a version of the T-virus code named “Veronica”. They disappeared from public eye and were believed to be dead.
Dr, Brandon Bailey now a full fledged virologist and not just Marcus’ student, was overseeing operations in Africa with the production of the T-Virus and various other biological weapons. Despite his requests to be moved to another locale, he was kept in Africa as head of manufacturing and research until he was executed by the Umbrella Security Service in 1998 to prevent a “security breach”. Several other doctors and their descendants would die under suspicious circumstances, with no direct evidence ever implicating Spencer.
BIO ORGANIC WEAPONS
In the early to mid 1980’s a rare but effective immunity to the T-virus was discovered in various populations around the world. T-Virus research was doubled as well as the production of new chimeric beasts dubbed “B.O.W” (Bio Organic Weapon) began. The B.O.Ws were utilized by many militaries around the world that Umbrella had infiltrated in an attempt to kill anyone with a natural immunity to the T-Virus. By this point in time, Umbrella had grown to be a massive global conglomerate that controlled many of the most powerful nations around the world. The Arklay laboratory was the main research installation for Umbrella USA until the construction of the NEST Facility in 1991. The NEST (renamed the HIVE in the film series) was a massive underground research facility on the outskirts of Raccoon City that specialized in work with the G-Virus. The G-Virus (Golgotha Virus) was a mutated viral strain of the original Progenitor virus that could reanimate dead tissue without the negative effects of the T-Virus. It would also bestow upon the host near superhuman abilities effectively granting them biological immortality.
Jealous of the success coming out of Umbrella USA and their NEST facility, the European branch of Umbrella began work on their Nemesis Project. Project Nemesis was designed to create an intelligent parasite that could circumnavigate the brain death and loss of intelligence caused by the T-Virus. Project Nemesis ran alongside the USA’s project Tyrant to develop a superhuman weapon. In 1998, both projects were merged to create the Nemesis T-Type, a hulking B.O.W that had an AI interface to allow remote control of its actions. The only known Nemesis T-Type was dubbed “The Pursuer”, it was killed by Jill Valentine and Carlos Olivera during the Raccoon City incident.
PRE RACCOON CITY INCIDENT
With the collapse of the Soviet Union in the early 90’s, Umbrella aggressively expanded into Easter Europe and Northern Asia. they founded, trained and armed several branches of paramilitary forces all under the control of the Umbrella company for use in outbreak events. An anti-B.O.W training facility was established on Rockford Island and was overseen by Alfred Ashford, the grandson of Dr. Edward Ashford.
Umbrella developed an intelligence division which served to keep track on the various governments of the world and their plans. The intelligence arm of Umbrella planted moles in various governments around the world, one such mole, that was planted in the USA, was Albert Wesker.
Umbrella’s influence over the governments they were selling weapons and biological agents to was extremely prevalent. When plant No.57 in West Africa suffered an outbreak, the Umbrella Biohazard Countermeasure Service (UBCS), massacred everyone in the plant and the surrounding villages to prevent exposure. This cleansing was covered up by the government so nobody would know of Umbrella’s involvement. Similarly, when a human experiment went wrong at a hospital in the Arklay Mountains, there was no police investigation, no media outlet identified Umbrella as the culprit and the hospital was shut down in 1993.
In 1996, one reporter who was getting close to the truth of what was really going on, was murdered with his body being washed up on the shore of the Aimes River. No investigation was conducted into his murder and all his notes and evidence mysteriously disappeared.
RACCOON CITY INCIDENT
THE MANSION INCIDENT
By the time of the Raccoon City incident in 1998, Umbrella’s influence and power had begun to decline. The decline was attributed to 2 reasons:
1. Industrial Espionage with other companies and governments stealing Umbrella’s research.
2. Internal Destabilization from the constant fighting and back stabbing done by the Umbrella board.
In May of 1998, the facility in the Arklay Mountains had a containment breach. While the facility was quickly put on lockdown, sentient “Cerberus” B.O.Ws escaped and made their way through the mountains killing and turning hikers into zombies. These zombies then attacked and turned other civilians into zombies as well. The local law enforcement was unable to determine a cause of the deaths or stop them from piling up. They contacted the STARS (Special Tactics and Rescue Service), a paramilitary organization funded by Umbrella that operated independently of both law enforcement and military, to help stop the murders. Having retired from the military, Albert Wesker was now leader of an elite team of STARS operatives and was tasked by Umbrella with taking his squad into the mountains and allowing them to be killed. He was told to destroy any incriminating evidence linking the incident to Umbrella and record all combat encounters to observe the combat effectiveness of the T-virus infected hosts. Wesker faked his death and left with all the incriminating evidence he had found and fled to the rival biological tech company. Only 2 members of his team survived the ordeal, Chris Redfield and Jill Valentine.
Dr. Birkin, the head of the NEST facility underneath Raccoon City, devised a plan to leave Umbrella and hand himself, along with samples of the T-Virus and the G-Virus, over to the US military/government after he failed to impress his way into Dr. Spencer’s inner circle. Due to the deep influence of Umbrella, he devised a plan to ruin them and expose their nefarious acts around the world. In the weeks, leading up to his departure, Birkin dumped live samples of the T-Virus into various essential works around Raccoon City such as their Sewage Treatment Plant. This allowed for the T-Virus to infect the entire City in a matter of weeks. By mid September of 1998, the entire City was experiencing the effects of the T-Virus and the Raccoon City hospital was under strict quarantine. Dr. Birkin was killed when he released his “Hunter” B.O.Ws in the sewers of the city. An Umbrella Security Service team was sent to handle the problem and Birkin was killed in the crossfire. He used a vial of the G-Virus to mutate himself into a powerful monster that rampaged through the sewers and the city itself.
By this time, Umbrella had become aware of the contamination of Raccoon City and moved to cover up their involvement. They quarantined the entire city and attempted evacuate some of the remaining uninfected civilians. When the infection spread too rapidly, the Umbrella squads sent into the city were decimated. The remaining National Guard, Military and Umbrella forces retreated to their blockades and sealed the city shut. With the city sealed and all living people in the city presumed to be infected or soon to be, Umbrella decided to use this as a testing ground for some of their B.O.Ws. Umbrella Europe deployed the Nemesis project to eliminate any surviving STARS members or civilians in the city, to test its combat effectiveness and to avenge the disappearance of two other B.O.Ws sent in by the military to initially control the outbreak. When it became clear that the outbreak could not be contained, and project Nemesis was lost to some survivors in the city (Jill Valentine and Carlos Olivera), The President, Joint Chiefs, and the Security council opted to use and experimental fuel air bomb to destroy the city and all traces of the infection. An undercover Umbrella agent used his influence over Senator Ron Davis to push for the bomb to be used. On October 1, 1998, the fuel air bomb was deployed and the city was destroyed along with all evidence of Umbrella’s involvement in the outbreak incident.
After the incident in Raccoon City, the United States government was no longer able to ignore the power that Umbrella had amassed. Congress voted to suspend Umbrella USA’s right to do business in the country and federalized all of their assets. With no evidence of the outbreak despite what some survivors were reporting to the media, the United States government was in very hot water over their bombing of the city. While several outlets were receiving interviews from survivors like Alyssa Ashcroft ( a field reporter with Raccoon City Press), the threat of bio-weaponry was covered up providing no excuse for the bombing. In response to the backlash received over the Raccoon City incident, the United States government formed the Anti-Umbrella Pursuit and Investigations Team. This team was focused on anti-B.O.W tactics and was given near unlimited power to operate within the US against bio weapons and outbreaks under the Anti-Virus Weapon Protocol No.7600.
As stock shares in Umbrella and its influence began to wain, Dr. Spencer (now the only surviving founding member) decided to shutter much of Umbrella’s viral weapons research and production. Umbrella’s African production facility was shut down and all staff eliminated to prevent a security breach.
In November after the Raccoon City incident, Umbrella’s facility on Sheena Island was destroyed along with their production facility for project TYRANT.
In December, the Umbrella training facility on Rockfort Island was attacked and destroyed by the Rival Company. The survivors fled to the Antarctic transport facility Umbrella had set up years before to distribute bio-weapons globally without interference from governments. As the survivors and the samples of the T-Virus they brought with them were deciding what to do, former STARS member and survivor of the Mansion Incident Chris Redfield, activated the facility’s self destruct system.
As the years ticked by, Umbrella found it hard to keep their employees in line. With their detention facilities on Rockfort and Sheena islands gone, and their research grinding to a halt, many employees began selling bio-weapons on the black market to make enough money to run from the company. The United States government was still covering up the bio-terror attacks, which were growing in frequency with the weapons making their way onto the black market. To combat this rise in bio-terrorism, the United States government formed the Federal Bioterrorism Commission to combat another threat on American soil should it ever arise.
In 2002, a terrorist named Morpheus Duvall raided Umbrella’s Paris facility and stole samples of the T-Virus as well as an experimental T+G Virus. The group then boarded a cargo ship as it was transporting illegal Hunter B.O.Ws to an unknown buyer in North America and commandeered the ship. The group threatened to fire missiles loaded with the T-Virus at large cities in both the USA and China unless they were paid 5 billion dollars. A coordinated effort between the US and Chinese governments resulted in a neutralization of the threat with no media coverage of the event.
By 2003, Umbrella had become a shell of its former self. Most of the nations of the world had withdrawn their support of the company and many of its subsidiaries were closed down. The final straw that broke the camel’s back was when their Caucasus facility suffered an outbreak. The surrounding villages were all burned to prevent further spread of the virus and Umbrella lost their super computer that had all of their research they amassed since the founding of the company. The United States Division of Umbrella was embroiled in a legal battle, which they almost won, in regards to the incident in Raccoon City. Due to the lack of physical evidence tying them to the outbreak and the cleansing of the city, Umbrella was nearly able to shift full blame to the government of the United States. It took a defected Albert Wesker, who had copied the super computer hard drive before the Caucasus facility was destroyed, making a covert deal to provide the US government with overwhelming evidence to convict Umbrella USA for a guilty verdict to be rendered. With Umbrella USA being found to have caused the incident and being found implicit in the “sanitation” of the infection, their stock prices plummeted and they were forced to declare bankruptcy due to compensation claims.
Umbrella Pharmaceuticals and the Umbrella Corporation were forced to declare bankruptcy following the verdict in the United States Supreme Court. American and Russian intelligence services issued a warrant for the capture of Dr. Spencer, though it was several years before he was found. He was killed by Albert Wesker in 2006 before he could stand trial for his actions.
With the bankruptcy of Umbrella their only division to remain active, if even for a brief period, was their Japanese location. It remained active until its liquidation in 2014 when no company would risk their reputation by purchasing it.
Umbrella Pharmaceuticals and the massive global conglomerate of Umbrella Corporation are without a doubt one of if not THE most evil corporations in all of fiction. Granted there are some like Oscorp from Spider-Man, Lex Corp. from DC Comics or even Abstergo Industries from Assassin’s Creed that are pretty brutal in their treatment of people; but, none of them compare on the scale of Umbrella. Umbrella essentially owned your research, you and anything you produced. Not to mention they reserved the right to kill you if necessary to prevent a “security breach” or even used you as a guinea pig for some new viral weapon they were testing without notifying you that you were being tested. They condoned the massacre of nearly an entire city to test some of their own mutated weapons, and they tried to cover it all up with a bomb that destroyed all evidence linking them to the incident. This is one company that I am happy has stayed firmly in the realm of fiction.
That was an extremely condensed version of the history of the Umbrella Corporation from Resident Evil fame. Any thought let me know in the comments. See you next week!